Infections During Pregnancy

Non-infectious Diseases of the Urinary Tract

Non-infective diseases of the urinary tract include pre-existing damage to the kidneys, hereditary disorders, “stones” and anomalies. Fortunately, most of these conditions are rare in young, pregnant women. Pre-existing kidney damage is often the result of past urinary tract or blood system infection. Before antibiotics were available (prior to World War II), “strep” bacteria (similar… »

Infections of the Urinary Tract

Your urinary tract and renal system are delicate structures which are crucial in your body’s ability to dispose of its waste products. Without this system, one dies. With a damaged system, one suffers. Ideally, the product of this system, urine, should be “sterile” (that is, contain no bacteria). Some bacteria are capable of damaging the… »


The Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes inflammation and destruction of the cells of the liver. Approximately 20% of those who become infected with HBV continue to carry the virus for their lifetime. These people are called “chronic carriers”. Chronic carriers of HBV ultimately have high rates of death due to cirrhosis (liver cell destruction) and… »


Fortunately, syphilis is rather uncommon in the U.S. However, it is a potentially devastating disease for a fetus or newborn if not diagnosed and treated properly. Syphilis is caused by a bacterium called Treponema pallidum. It is spread from one person to another through sexual intercourse. A test for syphilis is a common part of… »


Toxoplasma gondii is a single-cell protozoan (a class of organisms separate from bacteria and viruses). It is commonly found in soil. It is also found in the feces of infected animals, and has a well-deserved reputation for being in the feces of cats who roam outdoors. Meat is also a source of the organism. Approximately… »

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

CMV is a virus. In children and adults, it may cause symptoms similar to a cold or mild flu. If a developing fetus becomes infected, the problems can be severe (deafness, eye problems and blindness, mental retardation and death). Cytomegalovirus infection is difficult to diagnose with precision, and very difficult to diagnose in the fetus…. »

Group B beta-Strep

Group B Strep (Strepococcus agalactiae, group B) is a common bacteria. In older children and adults, colonization of the bacteria rarely results in infection. That means one may carry the bacteria, but never show signs of disease. In fact, as many as 10-30% of the female population are carriers of the bacteria. The bacteria can… »


Infection with Human Parvovirus B19 is the cause of “Fifth Disease”, one of the five common viral exanthems (the others are measles [rubeola], chicken pox, mumps, and German measles [rubella]). The disease is asymptomatic in about 20% of those infected. This means that one has the infection but shows no symptoms. The symptoms of Fifth… »

Herpes Infection

There are actually several “herpes” viruses. What is commonly called “genital herpes” is an infection caused by one of two herpes viruses, either Herpes simplex virus I or Herpes simplex virus II……both abbreviated as HSV. Both of these viruses may be sexually transmitted, and spend their lifetimes travelling up and down nerve pathways close to… »